Category Archives: Intelligent Design

Asking the Right Questions:

Kinesin
(Click on the image or the following link)

Asking the Right Questions: My Visit to Brown University and MIT 

No – this was not my, AYFPs visit, but rather a fellow named Brian Miller.

Some excerpts:

“ … Several of the participants had never heard the evidence for design, so they were visibly struck by its weight and the enormity of its implications. The questions were particularly thoughtful, sincere, and relevant. They were also very common in such discussions, so I thought I would address each of them.  … “

“ … The students commented that they very much enjoyed the discussion, since they never hear the design perspective. And the vast majority wished to stay connected with the sponsoring groups for future conversations. If only all academics could learn to ask the right questions and demonstrate such open mindedness and such a desire for truth. … “

This article is quite fascinating. As the two excerpts point out, some (many?) students at these prestigious universities had never heard the design perspective as applied to biology and life. This is not surprising since the Darwinian evolutionists have had a censoring choke hold on such discussions for many years (see my article at: https://ayearningforpublius.wordpress.com/2013/08/03/ball-state-university-intelligent-design-my-7-disappointments/).

So it is quite refreshing that perhaps a toe-hold has been established in the land of Ivy League (I live just a short bus ride from Yale).

I have to wonder though if these events were actually sanctioned by Brown and MIT, or were they off campus and sponsored by some rebellious truth seeking students.    Dr. Miller refers to ‘sponsoring groups ‘ so perhaps it’s wishful thinking on my part to think that Ivy has actually stepped up to taking a look at Intelligent Design – but it seems that some of the students are looking.

Dr. Miller has a BA in Physics from MIT and a PhD in Physics from Duke.

 

Don Johnson – March 2017

The Hottest New Computer Is: DNA

image

Further to a previous post here at https://ayearningforpublius.wordpress.com/2017/03/08/can-information-such-as-movies-be-stuffed-into-dna/ Take a look at this latest report by clicking on the image above.

By now it seems obvious that many life scientists and researchers doing actual scientific work on life’s designs have bought into the theory of Intelligent Design. This seems counter to the mere “teachers” and popularizers of the  Darwinian Theory of Evolution such as Richard Dawkins and Gerry Coyne.

“ … Intelligent design maintains that it is possible to infer from empirical evidence that some features of the natural world are best explained by an intelligent cause rather than unguided natural processes. Since ID relies on evidence rather than on scripture or religious doctrines, it is not creationism or a form of religion. ID restricts itself to a simple question: does the evidence point to design in nature? – … “ See more at: http://www.evolutionnews.org/2008/07/what_is_intelligent_design/#sthash.3EI2imgE.dpuf

In order to accomplish what these DNA/Computer researchers have done, it is necessary that they approach nature, in this case DNA, from the perspective that there are intelligent designs embedded in the DNA. And much like the old timers such as Johann Kepler they pursue and tease out these designs in their laboratories.  

kepler

But don’t expect much in acknowledgement of such thinking, for several reasons:

  • Darwinian thinking is so engrained in society, including the scientific community, that for many it has become an unthinking assumption and assertion.
  • There is very real danger in publicly acknowledging or advocating Intelligent Design. Read my report on Ball State University & Intelligent Design to get a good idea of what is happening in our university system.  Here we have a professor who was severely sanctioned for introducing the very idea of Intelligent Design, let alone advocating it in his course work. It’s called censorship.

Work such as described in these articles on DNA research undercuts Darwinian Evolutionary theory. But Darwinism is a “religion” and Intelligent Design is treated as heretical thinking. Do your own research and your own thinking here. When someone tells you that what you see in nature as design is only an illusion, only the appearance of design – question that thinking. Even if such thinking comes from the “smartest man in the world” such as a Richard Dawkins.   

Don Johnson – March 2017

Can information such as movies be stuffed into DNA?

image
(Click on the image above)

All who are reading this post are obviously quite familiar with and are in fact using a computer. By now we pretty much take for granted that when we turn on our PC, Mac or Smart Phone we see the results of an operating system appear before us ready for use as in the picture above and on your lap.  

These operating systems are very complex and are the result of many years of development by many very intelligent people – visionaries, designers, programmers, testers, managers and various types of support people. Though never perfect, and most often containing many bugs, the end result of these operating systems is quite elegant and very useful in a seemingly endless variety of applications, limited only by the creative ideas of the development teams. From smart watches to space shuttles, modern life if filled with myriads of computers and computer operating systems and applications (Apps.)

No one in their right mind and with just a bit of computer literacy believes that these modern marvels of human Intelligent Design came about other than through directed intelligence on the part of the development teams.

So now with the project shown here and at the link above,  we see the marriage of two Intelligently Designed products. We see a human designed and developed product, a computer operating system, embedded within and extracted from a naturally occurring Intelligently Designed system called DNA.

Each of the several trillion cells within our body contain DNA, each of which contain what is needed to “manufacture” our body and all of the parts within such as eyes, bones, muscle, heart ….  .  And to repair these parts as a matter of course as they are injured or fail.

Read here the original report I read a few days ago, and below a comment from a reader with a background similar to mine.   

_____________

“ Full disclosure: I’m a Software Engineer by trade.

Not only did they encode a movie in the DNA, they also encoded (amongst other things) a computer operating system. As proof of concept of the efficiency of the DNA fountain algorithm, they then read back the DNA and booted a virtual machine with it. The link below shows the OS boot up as well as demonstrating that it is a “working” OS – someone plays Minesweeper and opens a text editor.

http://dnafountain.teamerlich.org/

I immediately saw this as, not only evidence for, but as close to absolute proof as one can get, that the cell/DNA is intelligently designed. I’m not ashamed to say that tears welled up in my eyes when the VM booted up.

What the scientists did here was mimic, in a very crude manner, what occurs “naturally” in the cell. If what Yaniv Erlich’s team did required intelligence, how much more so did the far more efficient workings of the cell require an intelligence to engineer? “ (Emphasis  above mine)

_____________

My own working career of 40 plus years was spent as a member of development teams creating complex computer based applications ranging from smart torpedoes to  automated warehouses (disclosure: not the ones I worked on)  to Air Combat Training Systems – including on several systems, the development of tailor made real-time operating systems.

Verse:

1 Corinthians 13:

11 When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put the ways of childhood behind me.

Isn’t it time to put the foolishment of our childhood (Darwinism) behind us ?

 

Don Johnson – March 2017

Closing In On Why Bogie Quit Talking

image

[After 25 years or so of much talking and companionship, Bogie, the African Grey in our house, has suddenly quit talking – boo-hoo — a sad state of affairs.]

image

It’s time for another paradigm change. “These findings suggest that a fundamental assumption of current theories of motor coding requires revision,” as the Abstract of a new paper in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences concludes. Neuroscientists from Emory University have uncovered another coded signaling system, this time in nerves and muscles. The paper’s categories include “Computational Neuroscience” and “Information Theory.”

Neurons and muscles have a strong relationship. To get a bicep to flex, or a diaphragm to bend for breathing, the muscles involved need to be triggered. The triggers come from nerves connected to the muscle fibers. Until this paper came along, most neuroscientists figured that the brain just sped up the “spike rate” of pulses to the muscle to get them to respond. The emerging view is much richer.  It’s not just the rate; it’s the timing.

A crucial problem in neuroscience is understanding how neural activity (sequences of action potentials or “spikes”) controls muscles, and hence motor behaviors. Traditional theories of brain function assume that information from the nervous system to the muscles is conveyed by the total number of spikes fired within a particular time interval. Here, we combine physiological, behavioral, and computational techniques to show that, at least in one relatively simple behavior–respiration in songbirds–the precise timing of spikes, rather than just their number, plays a crucial role in predicting and causally controlling behavior. These findings suggest that basic assumptions about neural motor control require revision and may have significant implications for designing neural prosthetics and brain-machine interfaces. [Emphasis added.]

Working with six male Bengalese finches that were anesthetized, the researchers monitored their breathing while recording neural spikes to the lungs. They were able to stimulate the motor neurons arbitrarily in vivo and watch what happens. This is delicate work; they had to work at 250 micro-amp levels. To locally block certain nerve-muscle junctions, they applied curare — the compound Brazilian hunters use on poison darts — but not enough to paralyze the poor birds! (How do you say that in scientese? “Applying too much curare and fully paralyzing EXP [expiratory muscle group] would endanger the wellbeing of the animal.”)

Next, they analyzed triplets of spikes where the middle spike was variable. They wanted to test whether a “neural code” exists in the train of spikes. To do this, they had to measure interspike intervals (ISIs) at millisecond resolution. If the brain controls these intervals, and the muscles respond accordingly (for instance, with changes in air pressure), it would signify the presence of a neural code.

With these techniques they were able to isolate properties of the neuromuscular response for a variety of experimental tests. In particular, they were looking for the effects of different signal patterns. “Therefore, we believe that our muscle stimulation experiments were only activating the axons of motor neurons and were not activating muscle fibers directly,” they say. “This finding allowed us to make insightful comparisons between the results of our spike pattern and stimulation analyses.” After gathering large data sets and crunching them with software, they came to the conclusion they had found a code — not just in songbirds, but all animals:

Overall, we have shown that respiratory motor unit activity is controlled on millisecond timescales, that precise timing of spikes in multispike patterns is correlated with behavior (air sac pressure), and that muscle force output and the behavior itself are causally affected by spike timing (all on similar temporal scales) (Figs. 2D, 3C, and 4C). These findings provide crucial evidence that precise spike timing codes casually [sic, causally] modulate vertebrate behavior. Additionally, they shift the focus from coding by individual spikes (1, 14, 19) to coding by multispike patterns and from using spike timing to represent time during a behavioral sequence (20, 21) to coding its structural features. Put another way, although it is clear that earlier activation of neurons would lead to earlier activation of muscles, this relationship only accounts for encoding when a behavior happens (10, 22). Here, we show that changing the timing of a single spike within a burst by ∼1 ms can also affect what the animal will do, not just when it will do it. Furthermore, we showed that the effect of moving a single spike is stable across animals (Fig. 2). We believe that this precise spike timing code reflects and exploits muscle nonlinearities: spikes less than ∼20 ms apart generate force supralinearly (SI Appendix, Fig. S12), with stronger nonlinearities for shorter ISIs [interspike intervals]. Thus, changing the first ISI from 12 to 10 ms significantly alters the effect of the spike pattern on air pressure (Fig. 2B). Such nonlinearities in force production as a function of spike timing have been observed in a number of species (23⇓-25), highlighting the necessity of examining the role of spike timing codes in the motor systems of other animals. Importantly, our findings show that the nervous system uses millisecond-timescale changes in spike timing to control behavior by exploiting these muscle nonlinearities, even though the muscles develop force on a significantly longer timescale (tens of milliseconds as shown in Fig. 3B).

They speak of the “surprising power of spike timing to predict behavior,” indicating that patterns of spikes coming down the nerves are the determining factor in behavior, not just how fast they come.

Is this really a code? Well, count the number of times they refer to coding directly, beside the suggestion in the title, “Motor control by precisely timed spike patterns.” Result: 29 times. “Information,” a related concept in coding, gets 51 mentions. “Precision” and related terms, important for conveying information, gets 14 mentions.

Take a moment to watch this video of a nightingale singing on YouTube and prepare to say Wow!

How much information does the forebrain have to send to the vocal muscles to achieve that kind of performance? The authors note in their concluding discussion, “Because respiration is critical to vocalization in songbirds, it will be of special interest to record respiratory timing patterns during singing….” Indeed!

Think of the possibilities this discovery opens for further research. A multitude of questions come to mind: how does the brain know what pattern to send to a distant muscle to get it to act in a certain way? Are the codes inherited or learned? How reproducible are the patterns from one animal to another? Can a spike code from one bird sent to the nerves of another bird make it sing the same song? How does a human mind interact with the brain to turn a choice into an action? What translates the thought “I must run” into a spike timing pattern that makes you run? How rich, do you think, is the spike timing code in a performance of Chopin’s Fantaisie-Impromptu? (See the video at the top.)

Being a new discovery, this “spike timing code” will undoubtedly prompt much more research on more animals in more settings.

 

Article credit: Discovery Institute http://www.evolutionnews.org/2017/01/the_spike_code103455.html

 

Don Johnson – January 2017

Announcing My New Book

 

image
(click on the image above)

Take a look at my new book where I take on the Atheist-Darwin crowd.

It’s a quick read with lots of punch  — drop a comment back to let me know what you think.

 

Excerpt:

I remember those nights as a kid laying out in the backyard on a clear Montana night. Laying out in that mummy bag gazing in wonder at the night sky and … just thinking …

How many stars are out there? How big is the universe? Does it have an end? If it has an end … then what’s beyond? How did it get there? How did I get here? How can there be something that has no end? Are there answers?

I think most of us have had such nights, and for many of us such wonder continues …

I’m one of those whose mind seems never to stop with the wondering … I just can’t shut it off — not that I want too.

So this is a collection of thoughts, conversations and writings that I’ve collected over the years. Thoughts and study that go back many, many years. The pages to follow come from my thinking and study on these issues, from my blog and from internet dialogs I’ve had with various people, mainly commenters like myself who seem to be passionate about the same questions and issues. Many have quite the opposite views as me, but that’s OK.

Don Johnson – January 2017

Intelligent Design and the Manufacturing Process

In my working days we built a complex distributed system consisting of 4 subsystems distributed over a large geographical space,  interconnected with data links and including a subsystem containing a multitude of fast moving and maneuvering jet fighter aircraft.

In constructing these systems, we used a process called ‘Engineering Release (ER)’ where the various components of each subsystem, as well as the subsystems themselves, were released to manufacturing via a series of ‘Shop Travelers.’ These travelers contained detailed instructions on how the components were to be manufactured and assembled as well as a detailed parts list. 

When the manufacturing process was complete, the various components and subsystems were integrated and tested in a lab setting, and then deployed and tested on site for use by fighter squadrons.

Preceding all this of course was the necessary design work – a goal oriented, purposeful and intellectual expression of the vision of those who saw a need for such a system.

It would seem that the human cell operates on much the same scheme. A cell containing complete and detailed information describing an end product and the shop travelers that guide that cell to its final use as a heart muscle, bone brain and more.    

It’s called Intelligent Design (ID), and is the way all complex systems are constructed, whether they be human designed or the natural life we see all around us and within us.   To think otherwise is folly.

  __________________

Psalm 139
For the director of music. Of David. A psalm.

1 You have searched me, Lord,
and you know me.
2 You know when I sit and when I rise;
you perceive my thoughts from afar.
3 You discern my going out and my lying down;
you are familiar with all my ways.
4 Before a word is on my tongue
you, Lord, know it completely.
5 You hem me in behind and before,
and you lay your hand upon me.
6 Such knowledge is too wonderful for me,
too lofty for me to attain.

7 Where can I go from your Spirit?
Where can I flee from your presence?
8 If I go up to the heavens, you are there;
if I make my bed in the depths, you are there.
9 If I rise on the wings of the dawn,
if I settle on the far side of the sea,
10 even there your hand will guide me,
your right hand will hold me fast.
11 If I say, “Surely the darkness will hide me
and the light become night around me,”
12 even the darkness will not be dark to you;
the night will shine like the day,
for darkness is as light to you.

13 For you created my inmost being;
you
knit me together in my mother’s womb.
14 I praise you because I am fearfully and wonderfully made;
your works are wonderful,
I know that full well.
15 My frame was not hidden from you
when I was made in the secret place,
when I was woven together in the depths of the earth.
16 Your eyes saw my unformed body;
all the days ordained for me were written in your book
before one of them came to be.
17 How precious to me are your thoughts,[a] God!
How vast is the sum of them!
18 Were I to count them,
they would outnumber the grains of sand
when I awake, I am still with you.

19 If only you, God, would slay the wicked!
Away from me, you who are bloodthirsty!
20 They speak of you with evil intent;
your adversaries misuse your name.
21 Do I not hate those who hate you, Lord,
and abhor those who are in rebellion against you?
22 I have nothing but hatred for them;
I count them my enemies.
23 Search me, God, and know my heart;
test me and know my anxious thoughts.
24 See if there is any offensive way in me,
and lead me in the way everlasting.

Challenging Darwinian Evolution

Some of the fundamentals of Darwinian Evolution, as I understand it are:

  • The complexities of life we see all around us, and within us are assembled from the bottom up in a Natural Selection process which chooses beneficial mutations among a long series of such changes, while allowing less beneficial changes to wither away, or perhaps allowed to remain as flotsam or “junk.”
  • The resulting “designs” we see from such a process are merely illusions, the appearance of design … not actual design as we see in all of the human artifacts we dwell among such as the automobile and computers.
  • Evolution is said to be without purpose, without direction and without goals. What we may see as purpose, direction and goals are simply the result of the workings of natural processes – simply illusions of and the appearance of design,

So then why do we see purpose, direction and goals at every level of life – from the cellular level, to the systems level to the completed body plan?

We see purpose in the various machines and structures within each of several trillion cells in our bodies. We see the Kinesin motor transporting cargo from one place on the cell to another. We see the marvel of DNA which, coupled with other cellular components, represents not only a massive mass storage capability, but also represents a type of blueprint package defining all aspects of the end product body. This DNA package also contains what can be described as a complete set of “shop travelers” which, much like a manufacturing process, provides step by step instructions and bills of materials for the manufacture of the myriad parts making up the completed human body – bones, hair, brain, liver, eye, nose … and more.

And each of these subunits exhibits purpose — specific purpose.  What is finally assembled as an arm and hand for example, takes on a myriad of functional purposes such as accurately throwing a baseball, playing a musical instrument such as a violin and cradling a new born baby. Each of our vital organs play specific and necessary roles in keeping our body alive and functioning – there are goals and purpose expressed in each and every one of our body parts.

What we see and experience in the finished goal directed and purposeful human body is beautifully expressed in many ways, such as when we witness a magnificent choral and orchestral performance such as Handel’s Messiah. What we experience in that concert hall is not an illusion — it is real and is the culmination of a multitude of designs, both in the natural as well as the realm of human intelligence and ingenuity.        

The “Not-So-Intelligent Designer”

HaandlesMessiah

This post contains comments I’ve made on a book written and promoted for school teachers that mocks features of the human body that the author considers to proof-examples of  why Darwinian evolution proves life arose through a long series of Natural Selection of random mutations.

(Click on the images for more.)

_________________

I must beg to differ on Dr. Hafers and Glenn Branch’s view of this so called “Not-so-Intelligent Designer.” (Click on the link just to the left to learn more about this book .)

What she sees as “quirks and kinks, the makeshift solutions and haywire failures, of human biology,” many see as an elegant and quite magnificent design with an amazing and far ranging menu of capabilities. Let me suggest an exercise that the doctor, Mr. Branch and others can easily accomplish, and I believe you may see my point.

Take an evening out and partake in one of those wonderful choral and orchestra performances taking place all around the world at any given time – I would recommend Handel’s Messiah for this exercise.

As you are watching and listing to this amazing musical performance I would like you to notice and watch a number of things very carefully.

First the hands – the hands and body motions of the conductor, as well as his facial expressions and body movements as he leads the choir and orchestra through this magnificent musical piece.

Continuing with the hands — watch the hands, and in particular the fingers of the orchestra members as they travel across the various instruments – the sting section, the brass section, the woodwinds — the piano. Watch carefully as their hands precisely match the direction given by the conductor. Watch as the fingers subtly, and at times strongly tease the music from their instruments.

And note the various musical instruments — envisioned, designed and created by many beautifully designed and created hands and fingers.

Next the choral voices – listen as these beautiful voices blend together perfectly with the orchestra, and watch the faces and mouths as they blend perfectly with the hands of the conductor and with the orchestra.

Next listen and pay attention to your own reaction as message of the words and music bring excitement and inspiration into your heart and soul.

As you leave the concert hall, take time to look at the building and its architecture and artistry. Again, the hands, arms, legs and mind of those artisans designed those arches, paintings and sculptures you admire so much.

And when you get back home in bed, ponder over the creation of the musical score of the “Messiah.” Imagine Handel hovering over his desk and the paper taking on lines and musical symbols – and words. Imagine him going back and forth over that manuscript as he goes to and from the scriptures that are inspiring him. Imagine the music that is building inside his head as he creates this masterpiece.

No – the human body is not the “quirks and kinks, the makeshift solutions and haywire failures, of human biology,” but is something far more splendid and wonderful.

 

2016-27-6--15-36-40

Next I would suggest a couple of sporting events for Dr. Hafers and Glenn Branch.

First to a major league baseball game where they can witness the flawless execution of a double play. Beginning with the pitcher placing the ball across home plate at 90+ mph. We then see the batter follow that fast moving and curving baseball with his eyes, calculating where it will be as it passes into the strike zone where he can then attempt to hit it with his well hand/eye coordinated swing. Then we see the shortstop field the fast moving ball after anticipating and calculating where it will enter his glove. He then shovels it off to the second baseman who tags the runner out while leaping over the runner, and then a quick and precise throw to the first baseman who steps on first base for the second out of the double play.

Next we go to an NBA basketball game where we witness the continual back and forth of finely tuned, trained and coordinated athletes showcasing example after example of what these well designed machines are capable of.

Next we are off to an NFL football game where we witness precision in the well designed human body of a quarterback throwing the football with precise accuracy to a fast moving and maneuvering receiver who stretches his body out to execute a fingertip catch as he passes the goal line for a touchdown.

No – the human body is not the “quirks and kinks, the makeshift solutions and haywire failures, of human biology,” but is something far more splendid and wonderful.

thV8OXQ975

Next we travel into the applied biological science of medicine and medical research and invite teachers and Mr. Branch to read and study the extensive articles that a Dr. Howard Glicksman has compiled on the intricacies and design of many aspects of the human body. We see this compilation of science reporting at http://www.evolutionnews.org/continuing_seri/the_designed_bo/ This series contains at least a half dozen articles on blood pressure alone, and how it is controlled within the human body.
Note that this science reporting by Dr. Glicksman is seen in the Discovery Institute web site
http://www.evolutionnews.org – an ID site – and not on the pages of the National Center for Science Education. I have been following the NCSE site as well as the Discovery site and others for years now, and what I find is that good science reporting like I describe above is found often and on a regular basis there, whereas seldom – approaching never – is an any science reported by NCSE. I find that very interesting and troubling, and thus would offer a caution to teachers to view NCSE with a great deal of skepticism, and especially this book which is little more than a hit piece on those of us who differ with the Atheistic stance and mission of NCSE.

No – the human body is not the “quirks and kinks, the makeshift solutions and haywire failures, of human biology,” but is something far more splendid and wonderful.

Don Johnson – August 2016

About Those Self Driving Cars, Trucks and Buses

image

We hear more and more about the coming of self driving vehicles. Some are already on the road, and at least one – a Tesla – has already killed its passenger.

It seems feasible, but just a bit on the scary side don’t you think?

So how do you envisage these self driving things are being designed and engineered?

Do you see a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers applying the known laws of science and inventing the Google car or the Tesla self-driver?

I don’t see it happening that way. Oh yea, those smart guys and gals are certainly necessary and part of the teams, but I’d wager that the front-line designers are Intelligent Design biological scientists.

What?

Yea – and what they are most likely doing is studying – for example – How Hummingbirds Avoid Collisions. You see these small agile birds have been doing this for – who knows how long.

image

But haven’t I been told for 150+ years now that “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” And now you are telling me that Intelligent Design principles can be used to develop highly complex and sophisticated machines like self-driving vehicles?  

Exactly. It’s called biomimetics, which is the study of how nature accomplishes a wide variety of things, such that those same techniques and devices can be used for human benefit such as the self-driving car.

You can bet that if biology is a part of this new technology, evolution has no part in it. Nor is it likely that human ingenuity and brilliance alone will produce the final product that must be at least as good as the hummingbird.

Scientists, as shown in the article above, are studying this amazing design in nature, and it is likely that many are using these studies for applications such as the self-driving car.

Evolution? Could take millions of years and millions of trial and error deaths to evolve  the same product.

Why not use the same technique we often use in software development – stand on the shoulders of giants and reuse that which has been previously designed and developed?

 

Don Johnson – July 2016

Liver Function and Its Effects

A very interesting article …

Liver

A snippet from the article:

Evolutionary biologists are good at imagining how an ultra-complex organ like the liver could have come into being by talking about how it looks, but not how it actually works within the laws of nature to keep the body alive. But real numbers have real consequences and by using Tim’s case to highlight just five of the over five hundred functions of the liver, we will see what would have happened to our earliest ancestors without any one of them. After all, evolutionary biology claims that life came about by chance and laws of nature alone, so it must explain how transitional organisms survived as the liver gradually acquired these vital functions while macroevolution was taking place.

Click the link below to read the rest …

http://www.evolutionnews.org/2016/06/liver_function102916.html

Don Johnson – June 2016