Category Archives: Government

Maximilien de Robespierre

https://www.biography.com/people/maximilien-de-robespierre-37422

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(Note: I am writing this from Paris France)

I fear we may be headed down the path of the French “Reign of Terror” led by Robespierre.

The American and French Revolutions occurred in roughly the same period in the late 1700s, but with different foundational philosophies and dramatically different results.

Look at some excerpts from the biography of a man seemingly pure and noble at the beginning, becoming drunk with power resulting in the brutal deaths of many thousands, including his own, ending with the dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte.

“ … In April 1789, Robespierre was elected president of the powerful Jacobin political faction. A year later, he participated in writing the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the foundation of the French constitution. When the people of Paris rose up against King Louis XVI in August 1792, Robespierre was elected to head the Paris delegation to the new National Convention. In December of that year, he successfully argued for the execution of the king and continued to encourage the crowds to rise up against the aristocracy.

On July 27, 1793, Maximilien Robespierre was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, formed to oversee the government with virtual dictatorial control. Faced with pressures both from the outside and from within, the Revolutionary government instituted the Reign of Terror in September. In the next 11 months, 300,000 suspected enemies of the Revolution were arrested and more than 17,000 were executed, most by guillotine. In the orgy of bloodshed, Robespierre was able to eliminate many of his political opponents.

Seemingly intoxicated with the power over life and death, Robespierre called for more purges and executions. By the summer of 1794, many in the Revolutionary government began to question his motives, as the country was no longer threatened by outside enemies. An awkward coalition of moderates and revolutionaries formed to oppose Robespierre and his followers.

On July 27, 1794, Robespierre and many of his allies were arrested and taken to prison. He was able to escape with the aid of a sympathetic jailer and hid in the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall) in Paris. When he received word that the National Convention had declared him an outlaw, he tried to commit suicide, but succeeded only in wounding his jaw. Shortly after, troops from the National Convention stormed the building and seized and arrested Robespierre and his followers. The next day, he and 21 of his allies were executed at the guillotine. … “

________________

The target of Robespierre and the French Revolution was King Louis XVI.

https://www.biography.com/people/louis-xvi-9386943#!

Synopsis

“ … Louis XVI became the heir to the throne and the last Bourbon king of France upon his father’s death in 1765. In 1770, he married Austrian archduchess Marie-Antoinette, the daughter of Maria Theresa and Holy Roman Emperor Francis I. After a slew of governing missteps, Louis XVI brought the French Revolution crashing down upon himself, and in 1793 he was executed. His wife, Marie-Antoinette, was executed nine months later. …”

Image result for King Louis XVI Beheaded

Human nature seldom — probably never — changes, and history often seems to repeat itself, or at least casts its ghostly images on present day life.

It seems to me that today’s America is setting itself up for a replay of Robespierre and his Jacobians.

We are pushing our Judea/Christian Biblical roots into the corners of  churches and synagogues, not to be seen in public.

The barricades of moral standards fall against the onslaught of unbridled thought and teaching.

We are pulling down the reminders of our history – good and bad — by destroying monuments around the nation and teaching history in a politically correct fashion.

We have set up enemies within us, casting the “we” as noble and just, and “them” as evil. Hearts and minds close with breathtaking acceleration.  

I advise carful personal reflection as to our thinking, attitudes and actions in this time of troubles for our nation.

And no better source for such reflection exists than that wisdom from the founders of this great nation.

“ … because we have no government armed with power capable of contending with human passions unbridled by morality and religion. Avarice, ambition, revenge, or gallantry,  would break the strongest cords of our Constitution as a whale goes through a net. Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people. It is wholly inadequate to the government of any other. … “    John Adams.

Don Johnson – August 2017



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Is there still a Constitutional/Conservative Republican Party? A Follow Up IMPORTANT

Further to my recent post Am I still a Republican? Is there still a Constitutional/Conservative Republican Party? I’ve read a couple of articles this morning in the Wall Street Journal that greatly encourages me:

Speaker of the House Paul Ryan. Photo: Reuters

Speaker of the House Paul Ryan. Photo: Reuters

House Republicans Have a Better Idea

Meanwhile, Trump fires his campaign manager—a wise move but very late.

By Karl Rove  June 22, 2016 6:39 p.m. ET  

WSJ | 2016-06-22T22:39:00.000Z

(My emphasis added)

Donald Trump has already squandered six weeks by insulting a “Mexican” judge born in Indiana, offering conspiracy theories, and needlessly attacking defeated rivals. His fundraising is dismal and his staffing inadequate. All this comes at the expense of focused attention on his Democratic opponent. Now the presumptive Republican nominee has fired his campaign manager—a wise decision, but very late.

Meanwhile, the Republican House is methodically laying out a comprehensive agenda to spread prosperity, protect the nation, uphold the Constitution, reform health care, and—with its presentation Friday of a comprehensive tax-reform plan—create jobs, grow paychecks and boost the economy.

This agenda, dubbed “A Better Way: Our Vision for a Confident America,” is Speaker Paul Ryan’s brainchild, but the work of the entire Republican conference.

Mr. Ryan rolled out its first plank June 7 with an audacious reimagining of policies to help Americans rise out of poverty. The initiative would require those on welfare to seek work while providing them better access to job training and assistance. It would reform poverty-fighting programs to help people move from dependency on government to lives of independence and personal responsibility.

Republicans followed the next day with a robust economic package, based on the premise that increasing prosperity requires expanding free enterprise and rewarding hard work. The plan aims to relieve the enormous regulatory burden on businesses; expand affordable, reliable energy; curb lawsuit abuse and crony capitalism; limit Washington’s micromanagement of community banks and the financial decisions of ordinary Americans; and block government bailouts.

On June 9, Republicans issued a new national-security plan to protect the homeland, defeat radical Islamic extremism, and restore confidence among our allies and respect among our adversaries.

A plan followed to rein in executive overreach and strengthen accountability and transparency in Washington. Republicans would restore constitutional checks on spending and the budget—including by halting illegal executive-branch spending and overturning expensive new regulations pushed through by lame-duck presidents.

Last week, the House GOP also released a detailed proposal to replace ObamaCare with a package of reforms centered on the patient and doctor. These include making health insurance portable so workers can take it from job to job, increasing the use of health savings accounts, permitting insurance sales across state lines, allowing small businesses and individuals to band together to get lower prices, expanding wellness programs and reforming medical liability.

On Friday, Republicans will add to their agenda a bold and provocative tax-reform package aimed at a simpler, flatter, fairer tax code that encourages jobs and growth while restoring the competitiveness of American companies.

The way that the tax reform package was drafted illustrates how the whole agenda came together. Building on the work of his two predecessors, Ways and Means Committee Chairman Kevin Brady of Texas held six meetings with the GOP conference over a number of months to hash out ideas. A task force solicited proposals from dozens of congressmen; reached out to job creators, free-market think tanks and center-right economists; and canvassed Republican lawmakers to ensure consensus.

If “A Better Way” has a shortcoming, it’s that it is large and sprawling, consisting of dozens of proposals. But each plank of the agenda draws on principles congressional Republicans can use to tell Americans what they will do next year, regardless of who is president.

If Donald Trump occupies the Oval Office, Washington’s center of gravity will shift toward Congress, as industrious House and Senate Republicans drive the legislative agenda. If Hillary Clinton is president, “A Better Way” will give Republicans the intellectual ammunition to offer a competing vision that—if they retain majorities in Congress—may drive her toward cooperation.

Apart from its merits as policy, “A Better Way” demonstrates that there is much more to the modern Republican Party than Donald Trump. He casts a large, ominous shadow, but light can break through the pall. House Republicans are working hard to distinguish themselves and their party’s principles by presenting an agenda for the 21st century.

Their efforts are vital to the GOP’s success in November and may determine Mr. Trump’s political fortunes. The shame is that he’s making their work harder.

_______________

Some links:

http://abetterway.speaker.gov/?platform=hootsuite

http://www.speaker.gov/press-release/better-way-do-people-s-business

As a Constitutional Conservative I like what I am seeing here. I hope Trump buys into what the House has laid out because Lord knows, he himself brings little but a loud and narcissistic mouth.

Further, this plan would seem to provide an American Agenda that hopefully would do much to cripple partisanship and get to a place where a President, Senators and Representatives represent the best interests of Americans and not Republican-Americans or Democrat-Americans. 

If the House is sincere in this effort, and can pull this off, I see it as going a long way toward restoring an almost dead Constitutional Republic. Remember the exchange between Benjamin Franklin and Mrs. Palmer in 1778:

The deliberations of the Constitutional Convention of 1787 were held in strict secrecy. Consequently, anxious citizens gathered outside Independence Hall when the proceedings ended in order to learn what had been produced behind closed doors. The answer was provided immediately. A Mrs. Powel of Philadelphia asked Benjamin Franklin, “Well, Doctor, what have we got, a republic or a monarchy?” With no hesitation whatsoever, Franklin responded, “A republic, if you can keep it.”

And what is a “Constitutional Conservative?”

A Constitutional Conservative can be viewed as one who whishes to preserve those elements of the Constitution that give governance to “We The People … “ Meaning limited government and separation of powers among the three branches of federal government; Executive-Legislative- Judicial, as well as separation of powers among the Federal Government and the Various States, as well as between the Federal Government and the Individual citizen. . 

Don Johnson – June 2016

Connecting a Few Geo-Political Dots

Remember back in the immediate post 9/11/2001 world there was considerable discussion about how the government failed to connect intelligence dots that may have prevented the carnage of the 9/11 suicide missions against the US.

Here’s some dots that in todays world seem to be begging for connection lest we lurch into a period of substantial national and world chaos.

The dots?

First Dot — The national debt. looking back a few years we have Adm. Mike Mullen, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, warning that the ballooning national debt represents the most serious national security threat the US faces.

Here’s some of his reasoning:

“ … And the reason I say that is because the ability for our country to resource our military — and I have a pretty good feeling and understanding about what our national security requirements are — is going to be directly proportional — over time, not next year or the year after, but over time — to help our economy.

“That’s why it’s so important that the economy move in the right direction, because the strength and the support and the resources that our military uses are directly related to the health of our economy over time.” … .”

And more …

“ … Actually the way I said it was — and I still believe this — that it’s the single biggest threat to our national security. Obviously it’s complex, but the way I looked at it, if we didn’t get control of our debt, there would be continued loss of confidence in America.

I was in the military for over 40 years, and one of the principles I kept with me was that there’s an expectation globally that the U.S. will lead. Questions about that expectation have certainly risen in recent years. The fact that there’s even a question about that is worrisome to me, and I think needs to be for a lot of people. … .”

So what does this mean in terms of American military strength?

As the national debt continues to rise we would expect to see less of the tax base available for maintaining the military in an increasingly dangerous world. We now have close to 20 trillion dollars in debt … and what do we have to show for it? A diminishing and hollowed out military capability reminiscent of the Carter years when much of our naval aviation capability was grounded for lack of fuel and spare parts. 

Next Dot – A Hollowed  Out Military.

Defense budget cuts are now showing up as illustrated by this recent report on the mission status of Marine Corps F/A-18 fighter bomber fleet.

“ … Today, the vast majority of Marine Corps aircraft can’t fly. The reasons behind the grounding of these aircraft include the toll of long wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, the fight against ISIS and budget cuts precluding the purchase of the parts needed to fix an aging fleet, according to dozens of Marines interviewed by Fox News at two air stations in the Carolinas this week.

Out of 276 F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters in the Marine Corps inventory, only about 30% are ready to fly, according to statistics provided by the Corps. Similarly, only 42 of 147 heavy-lift CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters are airworthy. … .”

If you spread this Marine situation across all the services and then refer back to Adm. Mullen’s  concerns about American leadership and world confidence in that leadership, it becomes very disturbing for the near term future — especially as potential and actual belligerents such as Russia, China, Iran and others are increasing their military presence and threats around the world. 

And finally we come to an extensive analysis of the stability of the world through the eyes and studied wisdom of historian and commentator Victor Davis  Hanson – yet another dot to connect.

Next Dot — The De-Stabilization of the World.

I’ll let Hanson’s words flesh out this final dot.

“ … In 1939, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier warned Adolf Hitler that if the Third Reich invaded Poland, a European war would follow.

Both leaders insisted that they meant it. But Hitler thought that after getting away with militarizing the Rhineland, annexing Austria, and dismantling Czechoslovakia, the Allied appeasers were once again just bluffing.

England and France declared war two days after Hitler entered Poland.

Once hard-won deterrence is lost, it is almost impossible to restore credibility without terrible costs and danger. … .”

Note well the final words in this snippet from Professor Hanson Once hard-won deterrence is lost, it is almost impossible to restore credibility without terrible costs and danger.” ________

Are we on the brink of terrible costs and danger because of a national disregard for the lessons of history – or worse, a general and willful ignorance of those lessons?

 

Don Johnson – May 2016

Am I still a Republican? Is there still a Constitutional/Conservative Republican Party?

From Governor Bobby Jindal:

“ … I do not pretend Donald Trump is the Reaganesque leader we so desperately need, but he is certainly the better of two bad choices. Hardly an inspiring slogan, I know. It would be better to vote for a candidate rather than simply against one. If current trends hold, I will be among the many complaining this fall about my choices. … “

I have voted Republican for many years.
I was too young to vote for John F. Kennedy although I probably would have. And I certainly would have voted for Robert Kennedy.
Likewise for Lyndon Johnson – too young – and he declined to run again for the next election. I don’t know if I would have voted for him, but I think I voted for Richard Nixon, then Gerry Ford, then Ronald Reagan twice, then George H.W. Bush, then George W. Bush.

It’s not that I’ve been a hard core, died in the wool Republican – but  rather because of Democratic policies dating back to Slavery and the KKK, I’ve been anti-Democrat and will remain so.

But now with a man such as Donald Trump taking over the Republican party, I feel the need to take a sabbatical from Presidential politics – a long sabbatical perhaps extending beyond the November 2016 election.  A lot can happen between now and November, but in the meantime I will not entertain the idea of my vote going to “ the better of two bad choices.” Or as I would prefer to phrase it  — “picking one from scraping the bottom of the barrel.”

See you later in the year.

 
Don Johnson – May 201

Election 2016: The Possibilities are Bizarre and Frightening

We are less that a year out, and the first voters are set to cast votes in the soon coming party primaries. The polls continue to come hot and heavy and if they are even somewhat accurate then I dread some of the very likely possibilities:

On the Democrat side …

Hillary

Hillary Clinton, the front runner and widely assumed Presidential candidate for the Presidential election is facing possible prosecution and imprisonment for multiple counts of felony mishandling of national security data — yet she has wide but diminishing support among core Democrat voters.

Sanders

Bernie Sanders comes out of relative obscurity as an Independent/Democrat Senator who is a self described Socialist. It seems that Socialism and Sanders are gathering increasing strength — Consider:

In the Washington Post (“The Fix”, January 17), Aaron Blake reports the following polling results:

  • 43% of likely participants in the Iowa caucus identify as “socialists” compared to only 38% as “capitalists” in a January Selzer poll.
  • 47% of all American voters are willing to vote socialist in a June Gallup poll; 59% among Democrats.
  • 56% of Democratic voters had a positive view of socialism in a November NYT/CBS poll; 49% considered themselves “anti-Wall Street.”

Blake concludes that “this number proves Bernie Sanders can win Iowa.”

An article from Fortune Magazine reports that

“ … Sanders’ new programs would cost $18 trillion in taxpayer money over ten years, which would increase federal spending by around a third. That includes an estimated $15 trillion in healthcare costs, $1.2 trillion in social security, and $319 billion in paid leave funds. … “

This coupled with the current US debt approaching $20 trillion dollars is a frightful prospect. Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Mike Mullen has  said on many occasions that the most serious national security issue facing America is the National Debt. And yet many Americans appear willing to vote in this looming national disaster — not only for themselves, but many future American generations to come.

As I am writing this I came across several articles concerning the National Debt and the rise once more of socialism. I encourage you to read the articles, but a few snippets will illustrate the problems of debt in Brazil and elsewhere.

Brazil Losing the Battle to Debt – Update

“ … Latin America’s largest economy ended last year with a budget deficit equal to 10.34% of gross domestic product, the bank said, the widest level in at least 13 years, including the 6.05% in 2014. The country’s debt is also expanding at a rapid pace, putting the country on a hazardous path, economists say.

Brazil’s fiscal profile worsened sharply last year despite deep budget cuts and repeated promises by President Dilma Rousseff’s administration to improve government finances, promises she was unable to fulfill.

“What is being done to keep the debt from getting to a point where it can’t be paid?” asked economist Armando Castelar of the Ibre think tank in Rio de Janeiro. “There are no signs of change. … ”

The second article is by Peggy Noonan with the title “Socialism Gets a Second Life” (pay walled)  Here are some snippets from Noonan:

“ … And Mr. Sanders makes it sound so easy. We’re rich, he says; we can do this with a few taxes. It is soft Marxism. And it’s not socialism now, it’s “democratic socialism” like they have in Europe. You’ve been to Europe. Aside from its refugee crisis and some EU problems, it’s a great place—a big welfare state that’s wealthy! The French take three-hour lunches. … “

“ … Socialism is an old idea to you if you’re over 50 but a nice new idea if you’re 25.

Do you know what’s old if you’re 25? The free-market capitalist system that drove us into a ditch. … “

What’s left out of Sander’s analysis is the destructive role often played by the very government he advocates more of. The economic melt down of 2008-2009 being a recent example young and old have experienced. If you dig a little (I did) you will find the Government sponsored Community  Reinvestment Act (CRA) to be the root cause of that economic disaster … not the bankers and billionaires.

The Clinton legal problems. The publically released evidence of Hillary Clinton’s mishandling of classified e-mails, up to and including the very highest levels would indicate that the FBI will push for an indictment on multiple felony counts. However, such an action by the FBI would face the (hopefully minor) hurdle of the Obama Justice Department and a strong push back by the Democrat party to avoid the embarrassment and chaos resulting in having to endure the “trial of the century”  — in the midst of a presidential campaign.  

So what if the Justice Department (read Barack Obama) decides not to prosecute Clinton? What chaos would such a decision generate? What rebellion/revolution might ensue within the ranks of the Justice Department, and in the general society. Would the FBI go public with the evidence, along with mass resignations as some leaks indicate would happen? If such a decision is made to not prosecute in spite of an FBI gone rouge, will we finally see the unmistakable end to the Constitutional Republic of the United States and will we then descend into a one-party/one-man-rule dictatorship?

On the Republican side …

there are certainly more choices – more hats in the ring. But I will focus in on what today seems to be the two front runners – Donald Trump and Ted Cruz.

trump

Donald Trump, along with Bernie Sanders, is a direct backlash against what many see as the massive corruption and failures of the Federal Government, and in particular President Barack Hussein Obama.  Trump has masterfully capitalized on this backlash and his popularity and poll numbers have dominated for many months.

However, in my view, Trump is much the same as Obama but expressed in a very much contrasting fashion. Obama is smooth cool and collected in his demeanor and public persona whereas Trump is bombastic and confrontational.

Even with these outward personality differences, both come across as narcissistic, self-centered and egotistical. Both prefer the one-man-rule mode of governance at the expense of the long successful limited form of government, i.e the Constitutional federalist model —  “We the People … “  .

Our founders structured the Constitution, and therefore our government, with an implied “government can not and should not be trusted.”   This is seen in the separation of powers between three co-equal branches of government — Executive, Legislative and Judicial. Further separation of powers is between the Federal and State governments. And not least are the rights of individuals – you and I — as codified in the Bill 0f Rights. All this is the bedrock of protection against a tyrannical government.

This Constitutional structure is long lived, has been largely successful and has resulted in more freedom and opportunity for more people than any other form of government ever seen and tried down through history … including and especially socialism.

I see both men – Obama and Trump – as paying lip service to the Constitution, but operate on the principle of “my way or the highway”  … long the traditional form of governance throughout history.

Barack Obama has governed in such a way as to render Congress near powerless and irrelevant. This was seen early on by Glenn Beck, Rush Limbaugh, Mark Levin and others, — and we were warned by these watchmen on the wall.

But perhaps a Donald Trump could be even more dangerous and destructive. Why? Because Obama has opened a door that will be difficult to close, and someday one like Caesar, perhaps not Trump — but someone — will cross the Rubicon as Caesar did and  destroy the American Republic as Caesar destroyed the Roman Republic and usher in the era of Imperial America as Caesar ushered in the era of Imperial Rome. 
Are we ready for that? Do we care?

 

cruz

Ted Cruz. Of the front four I’ll go with the Texas Senator based on his record of Constitutional defense. Read the opinion piece below by John Hawkins for an excellent recommendation of Mr. Cruz … I echo that recommendation.  

Read Why John Hawkins and I am Endorsing Ted Cruz For President at:

http://townhall.com/columnists/johnhawkins/2016/01/30/why-im-endorsing-ted-cruz-for-president-n2112239

Things to think about … things to ponder … things to worry about … things to guard against

 

Don Johnson – January 2016

Loose Lips Sink Ships

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Grassley questions whether Clinton attorney had clearance for thumb drives

Official: More than 300 Clinton emails flagged for potentially classified info

Just how potentially serious is such a security breach?

The invasion of France at Normandy was the largest such landing in history and cost the lives of many thousands of allied soldiers. The landing was shrouded in much secrecy including deception to make the German defenders think that the landing would be elsewhere.

Had the landing plans been compromised,  it is likely the landing would have failed with many more lives lost and the course of the war would have changed dramatically, including the likelihood that all of German occupied Europe would have been lost to a Communist Soviet Union victory.

And the brave Seal Team 6 who went after Osama bin Laden – had this operation been compromised by loose lips, in all likelihood the entire team would have been wiped out and a significant victory handed to an Islamic enemy.


The Hillary Clinton security case needs to be aggressively investigated  and prosecuted. The full force of the law needs to be applied, including indictment, trial and  imprisonment, including life without parole.

The fact that she is a former First Lady, Senator and Secretary of State, and now the leading Democratic candidate for President should not in any way diminish an aggressive prosecution of this case —  on the contrary, because of her extensive resume, all diligence should be applied to prevent such an individual from attaining the highest office in the land, and leader of the free world.

The Democratic Party should immediately disavow her as a candidate and the press should aggressively press for an aggressive prosecution of this case.

This is NOT a political issue – lives are potentially at risk because of such behavior.

Don Johnson – August 2015

Our President Needs To Get Out More Often

But, you say, isn’t he seemingly always traveling someplace around the country and the world?

Yes – but he never goes anywhere, and thus sees little of what is actually happening outside of his own secluded world. Consider:

  • He leaves the White House waving as he boards the Marine helicopter.
  • He departs the helicopter and boards Air Force One.
  • He departs Air Force One and gets into his limousine at today’s destination.
  • He enters an arena or conference hall and gives a speech.
  • He then shakes the same old hands following the speech.
  • He gives a speech at a dinner and then hob-nobs with the same people – event after event after event.
  • He then reverses the travel and we see him waving once more as he departs the Marine helicopter and walks back to the White House.

He never goes anywhere, seldom sees what is happing in the country and seldom meets anyone new. 

We have learned that this President has skipped about half of his daily security briefings.

Can he possibly have an realistic appreciation of what is actually happening in the nation?

    _______________

And yes, this scenario can largely be applied to any modern president.

That is why it is very important that our next president be firmly rooted in America – he or she must:

  • Have a firm,  accurate and solid understanding of American history … from colonial days to current events.
  • Have a firm and solid understanding of the foundational principles of America as found in:
    • Our Constitution.
    • Our Declaration of Independence.
    • The Federalist Papers.
    • The Anti-Federalist Papers.
    • The lives and character of our founders — their motivations and aspirations.
    • The lives, struggles and character of our leaders since the founding through modern times and current events. Leaders such as Lincoln, Truman, Coolidge, Kennedy and others.  
    • Our free market capitalist economic system.
    •    … and more …
  • Have a firm and solid understanding of the nations struggle to overcome injustice in a number of areas such as: slavery, civil rights, women’s rights and more.
  • Have a firm and solid understanding of what has made the United States (until very recent years) an “exceptional” nation, and what has made this nation that “shining city on a hill’ that has attracted multitudes in search of opportunity and liberty, and escape from tyranny and oppression. 
  • Have a firm and solid understanding of America’s key role in the affairs of the world and it’s unique role in maintaining peace and liberty – a role that is abandoned at our own peril.

I saw and heard many on stage in the first republican debate that seem to fit the criteria outlined above.

Let’s seek them out, understand them and support them – the success of future generations count on our wise discernment and engagement in selecting our next president. 

 

  Don Johnson – August 2015